IC555 Timer

IC 555 timer is a highly stable device for generating accurate time delays or oscillation and providing timing from microseconds to hours. It has eight pins. It operates in time delay, astable and monostable modes.

Conductor, Insulator and Semi-conductor

Material are divided into three parts on the basis of electrical conductivity. Conductor that allows to pass current through it. Insulator does not allow current to pass through it. Semi-conductor partially allow current to pass.

TSOP 22 and 24XX

IR Receiver Module

It receives the information from the infrared rays (have wavelength is from 800 nm to 1 mm  and it is not visible to human eye) which is send by the IR Transmitter Module. It is used for remote control operation in electric devices like Air Conditioner, Television, DVD and many more.


When P-type semiconductor and N-type semiconductor combined together with fusion process then it is called P-N junction. When this P-N junction is connected with voltage source and emit light from the junction then this type of P-N junction is called LED.

Zener diode

Zener Diode

An ideal P-N Junction diode does not conduct in reverse biased condition. A Zener diode conducts excellently even in reverse biased condition. These diodes operate at a precise value of voltage called breakdown voltage. A Zener diode when forward biased behaves like an ordinary P-N junction diode.


Types of PCB

Ultra-Thin copper foils :
Ultra thin foils are defined here as foils with a thickness in the range of 5-10 μm. The price for ultra thin copper clad laminates is considerably higher due to the high cost of the foil. The price difference is around 20-30 %.

PIR Sensor or Motion Sensor

PIR Sensor : PIR Sensor is also known by other names which are Passive InfraredPyroelectric or IR motion Sensor. PIRs are made of a pyroelectric sensor, which can detect levels of infrared radiation within the range of the sensor.